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Posts Tagged ‘Rishi’

Great Scriptures, Literatures and Books of Hindus: 5

Posted by kathavarta on February 1, 2009

SHAT DARSHANA

though capacity of a human mind is marvellous as it providesfor endless expansion of the horizons, yet, it is generally to understand the human mind, which could be categorized under the following heads:

:: Introvert
:: Extrovert

For a person who is extrovert the thing that is visible and can be touched is exciting and worthwhile like reading stories of Mahabharata, Ramayana etc. may be heart warming.

Understanding the Bhagawat Gita, which forms part of Mahabharata requires delving deeper into the psyche of mind so that the essence of the vast knowledge can be gauged and understood. This can only be one by the introvert mind.

It does not mean that an extrovert mind can never think like an ontrovert mind and vice versa. On the other hand after certain point of time there is mutual transfer of ideas between both these type of minds. We had talked about Agamas in earlier it is totally based on the extrovert mind and Darshana on the other hand is based on the introspective aspect. There are Six Darshana or Shat-Darshana contributed by different sages on different schools of thought.

It is not possible to provie the knowledge in elaborate manner as so many sages created small couplets or sutras to convey their views and concept.

For a general person these condensed forms of knowledge may not provide the expanse that is within them, but for a Bhashyakar it is condensed form of ocean that is waiting to overflow.

SHAT-DARSHANA: SIX PILLARS OF PHILOSOPHY

(1) NYAYA……….by Gautama Rishi
(2) VAISESHIKA……….by Kanada Rishi
(3) SANKHYA……….by Kapila Muni
(4) YOGA……….by Patanjali Maharshi
(5) PURVA MIMAMSA……….by Rishi Jaimini
(6) UTTARA MIMAMSA (VEDANTA)……….by Badarayana (Vyasa)

Though there are six schools of thoughts, yet each of the schools have not presented their thoughts contradicting each other. each of the thought process join each other to provide a clear picture like a puzzle.

Each school of thought had provided their knowledge comprising of Sutra, Bhashya, Vritti, Varttika, Vyakhana, Tippani.

SUTRA

Sutra is a short yet composite formula with least letters to explain a long and detailed concept. A person who composes Sutra is called a Sutrakara.

In modern terms the Haiku poems can be compared to sutras. In India, there were many sutrakaras but the father of sutra is considered Panini. Ashtadhyayi is one the composite yet complex form of sutras.

Some of the prominent Sutra are:

(1) VYAKARMASUTRAS of Sage Panini
(2) YOGASUTRA of Sage Patanjali
(3) BHAKTISUTRA of Sage Shandilya
(4) BHAKTISUTRA of Sage Narada
(5) TANTRASUTRA of Sage Karnavashistha

BHASHYA

It is very difficult to understand a Sutra, as it requires similar kind of thinking and understanding as that of a Sutrakara.

Thus emerged the concept of explaining the Sutra in an elaborate manner with meaning of each word explained in all contexts. Such people who explained the Sutras were called Bhashyakar.

Like the father of Sutra is Sage Panini, the father of Bhashya is Sage Patanjali. He had deciphered the Vyakarnasutras of Sage Panini and still today, it is called a Mahabhashya (elaborated book of explanation).

Some of the prominent Bhashya are:

:~ Mimamsa Sutras by Sabara-Swamin
:~ Brahma-Sutra
by Shankara

VRITTI AND TIPPANI

Whenever brief explanation is provided for any sutra then it is called as a Vritti.

If the explanation of the Sutra is made in brief yet simple language it is called a tippani.

VARTTIKA

Bhashya though provides detailed explanation to any Sutra yet it is inevitable that certain portions of the Sutras remain unexplained.

Naturally for a person who is doing research on it would only receive half-baked knowledge, and in order to overcome these imperfections; certain philosophers have made a critical study of Bhashya as well as Sutras and have them corrected.

VYAKHANA

When detailed explanation is provided in a clear and running manner of a Sutra, it does not try to change or use overtone to create a different sort of impression of the Sutra, but provides explanation in a short and simple manner.

This great article is taken from below book:
Book Name: INDIA, Known things Unknown secrets
Writer: R. VENUGOPALAN
ISBN: 81-8056-373-1
Book Code: BV-5725
Publisher: Health Harmony, New Delhi, India
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Posted in Hindu story, Katha, Moral story, Religious, Sikhism, Story for Adult, Varta | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Great Scriptures, Literatures and Books of Hindus: 3

Posted by kathavarta on January 30, 2009

PURANAS

The Puranas are the basis for getting knowledge about history, culture and heritage of the bygone eras. Most of the puranas provide details of the lineage’s and the role they provided in the upliftment of the society.

Since they are voluminous, Sage Vyasa was provided with the responsibility of compiling the puranas. Every period had their own Vyasa who did this work meticulously, Krishnadvaipayana (son of Parasara) had taken up the responsibility for this Yuga.

Purana’s provide knowledge of Vedas in a simple and lucid manner other than providing history and genealogy. That is the reason why Puranas have become more famouse compared to Vedas as it is within the reach of a common person.

There are 18 Puranas, which can be understood from the following three heading:

SATTVIC PURANAS – GLORIFYING LORD VISHNU
(1) Vishnu Purana
(2) Naradiya Purana
(3) Srimad Bhagavata Purana
(4) Garuda (Suparna) Purana
(5) Padma Purana
(6) Varaha Purana

RAJASIC PURANAS – GLORIFYING LORD BRAHMA
(7) Brahma Purana
(8) Brahmanda Purana
(9) Brahma Vaivarta Purana
(10) Markandeya Purana
(11) Bhavishya Purana
(12) Vamana Purana

TAMASIC PURANAS – GLORIFYING LORD SHIVA
(13) Matsya Purana
(14) Kurma Purana
(15) Linga Purana
(16) Siva Purana
(17) Skanda Puarana
(18) Agni Purana

UPA- PURANAS

Apart from 18 Puranas there are 18 Upa-Puranas which are as under:-
(1) Sanatkumara
(2) Narasimha
(3) Brihannaradiya
(4) Sivarahasya
(5) Durvasa
(6) Kapila
(7) Vamana
(8) Bhargava
(9) Varuna
(10) Kalika
(11) Samba
(12) Nandi
(13) Surya
(14) Parasara
(15) Vasishtha
(16) Devi-Bhagavata
(17) Ganesha
(18) Hamsa

BRAHMANA

Brahmana are prose works that are appended to the Vedas:

VEDA: Rig-Veda…………………Brahmana: Aitareya-Brahmana; Kaushitaka-Brahmana
VEDA: White Yajur-Veda……Brahmana: Satapatha-Brahmana
VEDA: Black yajur-Veda…….Brahmana: Taittiriya-Brahmana
VEDA: Sama-Veda……………..Brahmana: Eight Brahmana
VEDA: Atharva-Veda…………Brahmana: Gopatha-Brahmana

They are esoteric keys to the ceremonial magic of the Vedas.

This great article is taken from below book:
Book Name: INDIA, Known things Unknown secrets
Writer: R. VENUGOPALAN
ISBN: 81-8056-373-1
Book Code: BV-5725
Publisher: Health Harmony, New Delhi, India
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Posted in Hindu story, Katha, Religious, Sikhism, Story for Adult, Tenali Rama | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Great Scriptures, Literatures and Books of Hindus: 2

Posted by kathavarta on January 29, 2009

CHATUR VEDAS (FOUR VEDAS) and Subdivisions within them

There are four major Vedas that are being followed by the Hindus from the ancient times, they are:

(1) RIG VEDA
(2) YAJUR VEDA
(3) SAMA VEDA
(4) ATHARVA VEDA

Out of the above four Vedas Rig Veda is the ancient and revered by all Hindus. Each of these grand books of eternal knowledge is again subdivided into various sections for better assimilation of knowledge.

(1) RIG VEDA———–0021 Sections
(2) YAJUR VEDA——-0109 Sections
(3) SAMA VEDA——–1000 Sections
(4) ATHARVA VEDA—0050 Sections

Total 4 Vedas and 1180 Sections.

Yajur Veda has two major parts the Shukla (Vajasaneya) and the Krishna (Taittiriya). Krishna is the older book compared to the Shukla.

The arrangement of Vedas is also unique in nature as it matches with the four Ashrams of the human being. The four divisions of the Vedas are:

(1) Mantra Samhitas (Hymns in praise of God):-
This section covers hymns, poems in praise of God, which requires high level of energy and is aptly suitable to the Brahmacharis.

(2) Brahmanas (Explanations of Mantras or Rituals):-
After understanding the mantras it is important to recite and do rituals in the name of the Lord, which require presence of large number of people and thus suitable to the Grihastya ?(householder).

(3) Aranyakas (Comprising of philosophical explanation of the Rituals):-
This book provides a base for understanding the lifestyle of the hermit and is thus suitable to people who wants to lead a life of a hermit or Sanyasi.

(4) Upanishads (Essence of the knowledge of the Vedas):-
The knowledge of the Vedas had been concentrated and put in the Upanishads; these grand books reveal the most subtle and deep spiritual truths.

Division of Vedas on the basis of the subject matter is:

A-Karma Kanda (Ritualistic Section)——Sacrifices and Rituals
B-Upasana Kanda (Worship Section)——Meditation, Worship, various forms of Bhakti
C-Gyana Kanda (Knowledge Section)——The true knowledge of Brahma

Four Vedas Contain:-
I have explained that there are four Vedas i.e. Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda and Atharva Veda. Out of these four Vedas Rig Veda is the oldest and the most perfect scripture. The language of this Veda is so beautiful that it just stirs the soul to a new level of revelation. Nobody knows for sure when this grand book was written or revealed. Rig Veda forms the basis for the other two Vedas namely Yajur and Sama.

Yajur Veda Samhita is like a beautiful prose that goes on to explain the meaning of the rituals done while performing scarifices.

Sama Veda Samhita is nearly borrowed from the Rig Veda Samhita and provides some explanation to the ritualistic processes of the sacrifice.

Atharva Veda Samhita comprises of the rituals and practices that is profound in nature that it becomes nearly impossible to find any scripture matching the strengths of this grand book.

Important Upanishads::-

We have already seen that Upanishads are the essence of Vedas and this divine knowledge is so pure and enlightening that the more a person delves deep into it the more he drwas the knowledge from it.

Among the hundreds of the Upanishads, thirteen (13) Upanishads from an authoritative collection of knowledge, they are:
(1) Isa Upanishad
(2) Kena Upanishad
(3) Katha Upanishad
(4) Prasna Upanishad
(5) Mundaka Upanishad
(6) Mandukya Upanishad
(7) Aitareya Upanishad
(8) Taittiriya Upanishad
(9) Chhandogya Upanishad
(10) Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
(11) Kaushitaki Upanishad
(12) Svetasvatara Upanishad
(13) Maitrayani Upanishad

UPA-VEDAS

Though the Vedas are four in number there are other books of knowledge that provide the same level of knowledge like Vedas. These books contain the knowledge mainly concerned with materialistic world and provide ways and means of achieving it. These grand books of knowledge have been given the status of Upa-Vedas or Additional Vedas. These books of knowledge are four in number and the details of them can be understood from the following discussions.

1. Ayur Veda:-
This Upa-Veda contains most comprehensive system of healing methods developed thousands of years ago by the great Rishis and Sages. Dhanvantri is said to be the God of Ayurveda, later this knowledge was developed and dissimilated through the great Rishis and Healers like Charak and Susruta.

This system of healing worked on the basis of the human nature and its resultant effects.

2. Dhanur Veda:-
It contains the knowledge of weapons and its uses and its benefit during war. It is said that during the ancient period people had such sophisticated weapons that could match the modern weaponry system of today like the weapons that could fly, spew fire and make acid rains are similar to the weapons used today.

3. Gandharva Veda:-
Man from the ancient times has had inclination towards music and dance and this inclination has withstood the time to reach us. Gandharva Veda provides the knowledge about the science of music in a lucid and clear manner for a new entrant as well a proficient person in music.

4. Arthasastra:-
For any economy to progress it is important to have the knowledge of political, sociological, economical situations prevailent at that time.

Arthasastra is the ideal book that provides the basis for all these and more.

LIMBS OF THE VEDAS

For reaching a particular level of knowledge, it is important that the knowledge should be increased to such a level that it can provide a base for getting into depth of the Vedas.

These are six limbs of Vedas that provide the basis for gaining better understanding of the Vedas:
(1) Shiksha by Maharshi Panini-
Shiksha provides the knowledge of phonetics. Shiksha is a complete course that deals with pronounciation, accent and words.

(2) Vyakarana by Maharshi Panini-
Vyakarana is Sanskrit Grammer.

(3) Chhandas by Pingalacharya-
Chhandas is metre dealing with prosody.

(4) Nirukta of Yaska-
Nirukta is philosophy or etymology.

(5) Jyotisha-
Jyotisha is the concept of Astrology. It is the science for knowing the past, present and future based on the movement of the planets and other heavenly bodies.

(6) Srauta Sutras (Rituals regarding scrifices)-

(7) Griha Sutras (Relationaships regarding the domestic life)-

(8) Dharma Sutras (Ethics, customs, rituals etc)-

(9) Sulba Sutras (Measirements related with the various rituals)-

This great article is taken from below book:
Book Name: INDIA, Known things Unknown secrets
Writer: R. VENUGOPALAN
ISBN: 81-8056-373-1
Book Code: BV-5725
Publisher: Health Harmony, New Delhi, India
Bookmark and Share

Posted in Hindu story, Katha, Religious, Sikhism, Story for Adult, Varta | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Great Scriptures, Literatures and Books of Hindus: 1

Posted by kathavarta on January 28, 2009

Hindu is person who believes that everything in this universe is part of the cosmic self working towards the betterment of the human life in such a manner that it does not interfere in the privacy of others.

For doing such things he may take the guidence of various scriptures written by great Rishis, Saints and Sadhus.

SHRUTI

Sruti is the divine revelations that have been bestowed upon whole world for the benefit of the mankind. Sruti is the knowledge that has been provided not by a mortal but is revealed through intuitive capabilities. The layman definition of Sruti is to hear.

The Vedas are also known as Sruti as the term Veda is taken from the root world Vid meaning to know.

But what is to be known and what is to be heard.

It is believed that none of the Vedas is written by the humans rather it is the knowledge that was revealed to them through the process of five senses. This knowledge is more on terms with the paranormal phenomenon and also the knowledge on the basis of existence that surrounds us.

The term ‘Rishi’ is used for those enlightened beings who were blessed with the revelations, as the term Rishi is taken from the root Drish meaning to see. They were the medium between the physical world and the spiritual world. They used to provide the knowledge to layman and spiritual seekers in similar manner.

SMRITIS

Sruti as mentioned earlier is the divine revelations that have been bestowed upon the whole world for the benefit of the mankind. It is the divine knowledge, while Smritis are secondary documents, which had its basis on the Sruti. They are law codes dealing extensively on the Sanatana Varnasrama dharma.

For knowledge to be easily understood it is necessary that the levels of knowledge is broken down in various parts so that the understanding becomes simple and strong. Smritis base their teaching on the Vedas and help in explaining and supplementing the knowledge of Viddhi section of the Vedas in a more elaborate manner.

Smritis cover a broad area of knowledge from the Dharma shastras and also lays down instructions that regulate the individuals, family, society, region, state and country on their customs, duties and religious activities.

Smritis are ever changing with the times and thus new additions were from time to time to provide the laws details as the customs, rituals presiding in the country at the period of time.

There are eighteen smritis, as below:
(1) Manu
(2) Yajnavalkya
(3) Parasara
(4) Vishnu
(5) Daksha
(6) Samvarta
(7) Vyasa
(8) Harita
(9) Satatapa
(10) Vasishtha
(11) Yama
(12) Apastamba
(13) Gautama
(14) Devala
(15) Sankha-Likhita
(16) Usana
(17) Atri
(18) Saunaka

The most prominent among them are of Manu, Yajnavalkya and Parasara.

This great article is taken from below book:
Book Name: INDIA, Known things Unknown secrets
Writer: R. VENUGOPALAN
ISBN: 81-8056-373-1
Book Code: BV-5725
Publisher: Health Harmony, New Delhi, India
Bookmark and Share

Posted in Hindu story, Katha, Religious, Sikhism, Story for Adult, Varta | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Devoted Son

Posted by kathavarta on June 25, 2008

Jamadagni was a Great Rishi. He lived a pious life with his wife Renuka. One day Renuka and the rishi were making a shivalinga from clay.

Just as they were giving in the finishing touches, Renuka’s concentration was distracted by the sound of hooves. The shadow of the Kshatriya king who rode that way fell on the shivalinga.

Rishi Jamadagni who noticed the loss of concentration of his wife was enraged. He called his eldest son.

“Your mother must be killed now,” the rishi ordered. But Jamadagni’s son refused to kill her.

The rishi then called his second son. The second son wanted to know why he should kill an innocent woman who was also his mother.

Jamadagni then called his third son. “Cut off your mother’s head now,” he ordered. The third son was Parashurama. Without a word Parashurama beheaded his mother. Jamadagni was pleased. ‘Ask for two boons and it shall be yours. I am pleased with you,” said the rishi to Parashurama.

“Father”, said Parashurama, “bring mother back to life. I know not why you wanted her beheaded but let her not remember what caused her death.”

Jamadagni granted his son’s wishes. Renuka was brought back to life.

In later years Parashurama came to be known for both his valour and anger. He lost out in a battle of strength to Rama. He handed over his weapons to Rama and renounced the world.
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Posted in Hindu story, Katha, Moral story | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment »